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Bilingualism and Code-Switching: by popular demand

In these neuro-divergent times, the binary division of "one language or two" in bilinguals is perhaps due some contestation, which students are capable of providing. I have always found bilingual production models (and the ubiquitous Powerpoint slide) that university teachers provide a hindrance because of their lack of explicitness and discussion - they are just not relatable as presented nor do they provide much information or examples for monolingual students.

Code-switching, a by-product of bilingualism, is now a term that is even found in minority-ethnic neighbourhood grafitti ("can white people code-switch" a found example). Please note that this is a linguistic term, used for switching between two languages, and not between local or social varieties of English.

My personal position is that there is no such thing as bilingualism: there is always a language that suffers attrition, and one language that prevails, mostly because of its prestigious standing over the other language. On the other hand, a child exposed to more than one language cannot be truly monolingual.

For this course (very popular at universities around Europe both at undergraduate and postgraduate level) we shall go through the terms used to discuss bilingualism, in detail, and then discuss, with the help of published books and articles, who can be considered bilingual (or are we all, one other language lying dormant?). Can bilingualism be defined by the speaker, instead of the "community"? Can it be imposed by the State? Does a bilingual brain function in the same manner as a monolingual brain? These are research questions that emerge as dissertation or thesis topics both at undergraduate and postgraduate courses.

Extra information

Linguistics and A level students with access to their college library or online resources or departmental intranet with assigned course material.

Location

At student's location: Around London, United Kingdom
Online via webcam

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General info

Age:
Adults (18-64 years old)
Seniors (65+ years old)
Student level:
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
Duration:
60 minutes
The class is taught in:Spanish, French, English, Latin, Italian

About Me

I have been working as an independent tutor since 2005, for Linguistics and Modern Foreign Languages (Spanish, French and Italian).

The courses showcased on Apprentus can be tailor-made (adapted) to your personal needs.

Please note that I tutor one-to-one, and not in pairs or groups.

I tutor mainly students in London, both secondary and university level, having been engaged by top London tutorial agencies in the course of my professional life as a tutor. My main cohort of students come from private schools in London and the home counties. None of my students has ever failed to be accepted by the university of their choice, and all of my 13 plus or 16 plus students have also passed their highly selective entrance exams (French, Spanish and Latin for the 13 plus entrance). I am aware that tutoring involves a different set of skills but I also have experience of group teaching and observation undertaken at different stages of my professional life. I have carried out short teaching assignments before, namely for ENSSIB in Lyon (two sessions of four weeks and one week courses) for the masters in library management in 2004 for two groups of around 30 students (English) and at Queen Mary University of London (evening revision class for A level French, in the Widening Participation Programme, 2007).

I have taught all ages and levels, as well as multi-level classes (as it was the case at the higher education establishments in France and Poland). While there is expected homogeneity in a regular class, I respect the individuality of each student and adapt to their needs, ranging from their first exam preparation for 11+ or 13+ (mainly French and Latin) to students needing help at university with their degree language modules, in particular when linguistics is involved (as students have less contact time with university teachers than they might need or wish). In addition, I taught EFL classes of average 20 students both in Buenos Aires (1980-1981), Oxford and Reading (1982-1988) and at UCL as a subject librarian (Romance Languages) I carried out staff and student training in IT skills and information literacy. I have a good selection of educational materials and visual prompts from cultural centres (Spain and South American countries) to help students with their literature and cultural essays. My ambition is to inspire students not only to succeed but to want to take their Spanish knowledge and skills to the next academic level and excel as scholars at university or in their chosen profession.

Education

I have a BA from Reading University in Linguistic Science (2:1) and from UCL, an MPhil in Linguistics (Romance languages syntax) as well as an MA in Electronic Communication and Publishing. While I was working at UCL Institute of Education, I completed a Postgraduate Diploma in Higher and Professional Education. I am now a Research Associate at King's College London in the Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, where I do research for bibliographies.

In addition, I have received scholarships from ARELS/British Council (1981), I completed my year abroad at Aix en Provence (as a regular student within my Reading degree, 1987-1988) and was a postgraduate exchange student at the Freie Univ. Berlin, 1992. I have worked in Buenos Aires, France (Paris, Lyon). Poland (Bielsko Biala), and carried out a project for libraries in New York (2006) and attended (on a scholarship) a summer school at ELTE, Budapest (2006).

Experience / Qualifications

Spanish, French and Linguistics tutor referred by main tutorial agencies in London and by word of mouth. Typical tasks involve intensive revision tutorials in exam periods (Easter revision in particular) as well as year-long support for regular students. Most of my GCSE students have progressed to A level study of Spanish and French. Tuition for the typical tutee means that they are able to improve their grades, which is crucial for university entrance (usually those Bs must be turned into As for Russell Group universities). I also coach and tutor for Common Entrance and own school’s entrance exams, both at 13 plus and 16 entry points. None of my students have ever failed to get into the school of their choice at these two levels. I have tutored children in top private schools, Eton, Harrow and Winchester in particular, which has been intellectually rewarding and inspiring. For the lesser gifted, I have based the lessons on carefully graded advancement, in order not to discourage the student and create confidence in their abilities. Tutees return to me for their university support, as they are likely to be inspired to continue with their languages in Higher Education.

I am a member of the Chartered College of Teaching since 2007, which grants me access to new research in education and learning.
In this course, you will learn a range of linguistic methods and learn the terms used for describing a specific aspect of language or phenomenon (lexis, morphemes, and 'telegraphic stage' to give a few examples). The course requires you to explore your own data using quantitative and qualitative analysis (eg: how frequently are slang phrases used? Are there new auxiliaries being created?). No historical linguistics or literature is involved, but language change or specific traits will be sampled via your own data collection (if this is what is demanded in your course). As many students need to present a "year abroad" dissertation at University level (3rd year in the UK of a Modern Languages or Linguistics Undergraduate course) I can help you to research and structure your year abroad work, both in English (Linguistics) and Romance languages (French, Italian, Spanish). The topics that have arisen from recent discussions with students relate to French Caribbean writing, Italian resistance and reprisals in Rome (Fosse Ardiatine), and Spanish Etica franquista in films (among others).
In this Latin course, I offer "Common Entrance at 13+" training (including scholarship papers) for those students who have studied Latin for one or two years, and would like to revise, do translations and read from fun books such as Minimus or So you really want to learn Latin. Plenty of cultural stories and mythology in the mix, besides battles and august men. A basic understanding of grammar (or willingness to learn) expected. Ideally, students ought to be doing Latin at school and preferably have a second language (a Romance language ideal for securing a higher grade).
You will be prepared for public exams (A levels, GCSE, American SATS, Common Entrance) in French, Spanish, Linguistics (English) and Latin (up to Common Entrance) to a high standard. For those not taking exams, you will be taught via grammar and reading, which assures quick progression. You are welcome to bring your own material to explore with the tutor or your school prep. I do not write essays for students but provide a high degree of research to allow you to shine in your project or chosen module.
For Linguistics and Phonetics you will go through your university course assignments with me, we shall do "Chomskian trees" and we shall discuss theoretical points (eg GB theory, minimalist program). For Phonetics, IPA symbols and phonetic structures and theories (auto-segmental phonology and optimality theory). WARNING: there are many approaches to these theories, we shall go by what has been adopted at your university.

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from £78Online via webcam
from £78At student's home

Good-fit Instructor Guarantee


If you are not satisfied after your first lesson, Apprentus will find you another instructor or will refund your first lesson.

Online reputation

  • Instructor since September 2020
  • Phone number verified
  • Linkedin connected

Availability of a typical week

(GMT -04:00) New York
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from £78Online via webcam
from £78At student's home

Good-fit Instructor Guarantee


If you are not satisfied after your first lesson, Apprentus will find you another instructor or will refund your first lesson.

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